Arizona SciTech Blog
This blog is courtesy of the Arizona SciTech Festival.
S.T.E.M. Matters Manager: Marisa Ostos
S.T.E.M. is all around us, from the moment we wake up with the warmth of the sun to the time we go to sleep with wane of the moon. Both you and your family experience it wherever you go. It may be possible that you’ve looked down at your beautiful child and been in awe at how life could produce life, while wanting the best for your little one. But have you ever wondered if they might have the chance to go into the S.T.E.M. fields later on and actually enjoy it? Well, they do!
The world of future career possibilities involving S.T.E.M. is endless, and new career paths are constantly being shaped and developed with our ever-expanding world of technology and discovery. Yes, you may have wondered if they might become doctors or engineers someday, but those professions make up just a small percentage of all the possibilities that are out there!
Take a minute and observe your child. What do they love to do? Do they constantly come inside with dirty hands due to their love of capturing water-bugs? Do they spend those extra few seconds looking up at the stars? Do they have fun learning about the uncovering of King Tut’s tomb? All of these are enjoyments that can be fostered, and all are related to S.T.E.M.! Yes, you may be familiar with the career-ideas of an astronomer, or an archaeologist, but even if they have the slightest interest in anything S.T.E.M.-related, it’s possible to turn that interest into a future career, one they would love doing each day.
There are researchers who set traps for bugs and observe their life-cycles. There are music therapists who use the science behind hearing/language/and the like as a therapy for others. There are people whose careers can involve making sure that a scene in a movie depicts the science and engineering behind a space-launch. The possibilities really are endless, and it’s all a matter of knowing that your child, whether young or adult-age, has so many options that they may not even know that their future career exists! S.T.E.M. is quite exciting in and of itself, and it’s potential for future career opportunities just keeps growing!
Guest Author: Theodore “Ted” C. Kraver Ph.D.
Every once in while entities from individuals to nations have to take a step back and reposition themselves. For the most successful the challenge is the toughest. There are few reasons to challenge past decisions and current pathway. Sports teams work this problem in the off season. Students face this challenge during high school graduation. In my rural town in the 1950s both genders were very engaged in high school which had defined their life. At that time, most girls did not go to college or into the military both many boys did. During my HS reunion was talking with a group of lady classmates. They related their day-after-graduation stores of an overnight loss of purpose and fading self-image.
STEM institutions also have this problem but in a much different way. Usually they are hugely successful as they survive the startup phase, experience rapid growth and then coast into successful maturity. They may be ranked number one in the world. But long range studies have shown that many of the top ten corporations 20 years ago are no longer on the list. What about STEM colleges?
MIT, Cal Tech, Harvey Mud, and many other STEM colleges have been in the top ten ratings for decades. Recently Georgia Tech has claimed that MIT is the Georgia Tech of the north. Because of rapid population growth of a factor of 7 (seven) over the past 50 years, Arizona’s two largest public STEM colleges have had the leadership[, resources and growth spurt over the last 60 years to move into the top 50 rank. The question for Arizona STEM advocates is how to make the next giant step in quality into the top 20 STEM Colleges. One of the means touted by the AZ Capital Times higher education panel was to use exemplar schools as models.
MIT’s planning and design has been based on pedagogical innovations starting with hands on problem-solving in 1861. The Institute then evolved with learning communities using theories of Piaget and Papert. After WWII the 1949 Institute plan was built on lessons from the rapidly shifting global, technological, economic and political landscape. The planning frequency has increased along with rapidly increasing changes in civilization. The 1998 plan addressed the information revolution. The 2006 plan focused on undergraduate institute requirements. Their current July 28, 2014 task force report in the Future of MIT Education includes a comprehensive situation assessment of higher education and MIT’s emerging challenges for the next couple of decades. The result was 18 critical issues that started with: Extending learning to the global community with its growing demand at all socio-economic levels while addressing escalating cost.
The strategic pathway includes flexible degrees with a mix of school, research, service and professional work. A driver is would be an initiative for bold experimentation to transform pedagogy of undergraduate education including online and blended learning, learning communities, service opportunities, maker faculties everywhere and access to graduate curriculum. Then extend these residential innovations to the world based on MITx and edX experience by using OpenCourseWare Educator. Class modularity, game-based learning, open ended problem discussion, and partnering with other colleges are the means to this end. Challenges that must be undertaken are 22%/78% female/male MITx participant, a knowledge base for the 1000 edX communities, and in integrated strategy for the MIT’s 80 K-12 programs To support both current and new MIT, plus the world engagement require creating certificates, pricing of services , improving access and affordability, and expanded fundraising activities.
Talk to any successful entrepreneur and he will tell you of the ideas of others that he has used. Arizona higher education must put on the boots of and entrepreneur to repositions itself for Arizona’s Great Second Double Decade of the 21st Century.
Guest Author: Theodore “Ted” C. Kraver Ph.D.
Many ideologists call for tax reductions and decreased public spending to improve the economy —a scheme that has been proven to do the exact opposite. Unfortunately, some of these leaders have been successful and we have paid a high price. Our nation’s public debt has soared into the $Trillions. Our nation’s public roads and much of our other transport infrastructure are deteriorating for lack of maintenance, repair and upgrades as traffic levels and cargo weights increase. As a result we waste a $100 Billion a year in time and gasoline because a low gasoline tax. In Arizona our annual investment per student in education is of the lowest in the nation assuring that a large percentage of students fail to receive an education which addresses their needs.
History tells us that USA’s rise to dominance has been due to our 200 year history of funding public schools for the three R’s (steM), the creation of public high schools (SteM), and finally our public career education schools and college system (STEM). Each period of history has had a huge increase in USA economic power and citizen well-being caused by wise government investment in emerging technologies. In the 19th century it was steam boats, railroads and water ways. The 20th century saw huge dams, the Panama Canal, airports and aviation breakthroughs, and bio-medical products, the rural electric grid and Tennessee Valley Authority, the Eisenhower highway system, and then the Internet. Each of these required immense amounts of public funding for emerging technologies that were sourced from taxes.
“Tax and Spend and Prosper” was the way of our forbearers. When an anti-tax sentiment problem arose they addressed it. General George Washington and his patriots crushed the Whiskey Rebellion which was all about not paying taxes. More recently other rich countries have raised taxes commensurate with the needs of their citizens. In the USA our taxes have been constant as a percent of Gross National Product for 60 years. Compared to peer countries our wealthy individuals and corporations pay lower income taxes. As a result our system of leadership fails to fully implement the findings, knowledge and skills of our scientists, technicians, engineers and mathematicians for our nation’s advantage.
I believe that a major cause of the current decades of the Great Recession, unique in the history of our nation, is the lack of bold risk taking by our leaders. The Arizona STEM research and practice has produced the “know how” and talent pouring out of our and public research universities and driving high tech enterprises . The scope is broad from electronic to biotech to aerospace to education technologies. What we need are folks in leadership that will implement a STEM based “Tax – Spend” vision in the public sector to support the “Prosper” in the private sector and for our citizens.
We have an opportunity between now and November 4th, election day. Do your part.
Reference: Porsches, Potholes and Patriots, Nicholas Kristof, NY Times, July 3rd, 2014.
S.T.E.M. Matters Manager: Marisa Ostos
It’s common knowledge that we as humans need water to live, but why is this? What makes water so vital to our own survival?
If we start at the molecular level, we’ll find that each cell within our body contains organelles, enzymes, genetic material (DNA), and such which help us to survive. Regardless of all this, each cells contains mostly empty space, with this empty space being taken up by a liquid called the cytosol, which again is largely water. The liquid cytosol, along with the organelles, enzymes, and such all work together to help each individual cell function and survive. Without this organization, and without each part of the cell serving its proper function, the cell would not survive. As our bodies are made up of cells, the proper functioning of each cell is important to our own health.
On a larger level, water is known as the “universal solvent,” necessary to all organisms’ surival. As you know, water is made up of H2O: 2 molecules of hydrogen and 1 molecule of oxygen. Our own bodies undergo a number of chemical processes that utilize water or the elements within water, one example being the “citric acid cycle” which helps to create energy for our bodies. Looking at an even larger scale, water does a number of things for our bodies including, but not limited to the following: thinning the blood which helps decrease our risk of heart attack; lowering blood presure; helping us to feel less hungry; flushing out toxins; regulating our body temperature; and more [BestRealHealth].
All in all, water is such an important chemical that we (and pretty much all organisms) quite literally would not survive without it. This is why, in searching for life on other planets, astronomers and such search for signs of water. For life as we know it, water is necessary to survival, so drink up!
Por Carmen Cornejo: Coordinadora de Relaciones Hispanas; Propietaria: Critical Mass Communications, LLC.
Imagina a un niño enfermo que vive en una pequeña y remota villa en México, lejos de servicios médicos especializados que permitan diagnosticar y tratar un problema cardiaco. Imagina la frustración y desesperación de su familia que no tendría recursos para hacer un viaje a una gran ciudad y hacer que ese niño sea tratado por un prestigioso cardiólogo. Entra en escena el Dr. Iglesias, quien está preocupado en llevar servicios médicos especializados a muchas comunidades gracias a su proyecto de medicina a distancia, o telemedicina. El y su equipo pueden llevar servicios de salud a ese niño y paz a su familia, conectando el pequeño paciente y servicios médicos a larga distancia a través de la tecnología.
El Dr. Carlos G. Iglesias es un médico Mexicano que reúne socios y expertos en campos de la alta tecnología para llevar servicios de diagnóstico y tratamiento médico a distancia para que llegue a comunidades lejanas con su compañía Tecnologías NeteMedical.
Su proyecto de telemedicina adapta hardware y software para construir estaciones de computadoras que auxilian en el examen de pacientes, manejo de records médicos, toma videos, fotografía y conecta estas estaciones con doctores especialistas y hospitales, compartiendo la información regulada por estrictos códigos éticos y de protección de privacidad. Technologías NeteMedical usa multimedia en alta definición para recolectar la información de los pacientes, además de información por escrito para hacer diagnósticos posibles.
El Dr. Iglesias está comprometido a llevar el acceso a sistemas de salud de una manera rápida, eficiente, con más opciones y de alta calidad, no importa donde se encuentre el paciente
Su proyecto ha recibido reconocimientos y premios de compañías de Estados Unidos de alta tecnología como Microsoft and Intel. Aquí esta un video del proyecto.
“Nuestro sistema de telemedicina reduce costos de una manera increíble,” explica el Dr. Carlos Iglesias. “Tú puedes rápidamente conectar a especialistas médicos entrenados con un paciente, donde quiera que se encuentre, aún que este se encuentre en una villa remota. Tú puedes tener a los más prestigiados especialistas atendiendo pacientes inmediatamente.”
Actualmente Tecnologías NeteMedical está trabajando en hacer estaciones de diagnostico aún mas portátiles con la integración de tabletas y aún teléfonos móviles al sistema, además de encontrar aplicaciones adicionales para otros mercados médicos en países en desarrollo.
Sus productos son actualmente usados en México y Tecnologías NeteMedical está en negociaciones para llevar la telemedicina a Guatemala, Africa y Brazil.
Para más información sobre este interesante proyecto STEM, SIGUE ESTA LIGA.
By Carmen Cornejo: Hispanic Outreach Coordinator; Principal: Critical Mass Communications, LLC.
Imagine a sick child who lives in a small, remote village in Mexico, away from the specialized medical team that may be able to diagnose and treat a heart problem. Imagine the frustration and desperation of a family who may not have resources to make a trip to a big city and have the child checked by a prestigious cardiologist. Enter Dr. Iglesias who is concerned about delivering expert medical care to many communities thanks to his telemedicine project. He and his team can bring health care to that child and peace of mind to his family by connecting patient and medical services long distance.
Dr. Carlos G. Iglesias is a Mexican physician working in building partnerships with experts in technology fields to bring advanced diagnosis and medical care to remote, isolated communities with his company Tecnologías NeteMedical.
His telemedicine project adapts hardware and software to develop computer stations that can examine patients, manage medical records, take video and photography, connect the remote stations with physicians and hospitals and share information with specialists, all tightly regulated by codes of ethics and protection of privacy. Technologías NeteMedical uses multimedia in high definition to collect patience information in addition to written records to make diagnosis possible.
Dr. Iglesias is determined to bring this way faster access to health care, more choices for patients and high quality health care no matter where the patient is at.
His project has received accolades and awards from US high tech companies like Microsoft and Intel. Here is a video about the project.
“Our telemedicine system can cut costs in an unbelievable way,” explains Dr. Carlos Iglesias. “You can very quickly connect a trained medical specialist with a sick patient anywhere that patient might be, even when that patient is in a remote village. You can have top specialists attending the patient immediately.”
NeteMedical software has been developed by a Mexican experts, like Dr. Iglesias and Rodrigo Diaz Concha founder of a Guadalajara-based firm that specializes in advance technological research, among others.
Right now Tecnologías NeteMedical is working to make the diagnosis stations even more portable with the integration of tablets and even smart phones to the system, in addition to finding new applications for other medical markets in developed countries.
His products are already being used in Mexico and Tecnologías NeteMedical are in negotiations to bring the telemedicine products to Guatemala, Africa and Brazil.
For more information about this interesting STEM project, click here.
Have you ever felt exhausted after a night of shut-eye? Let’s look at some of the science behind this fascinating and mysterious phenomenon we know as sleep!
Although scientists are still doing research to understand exactly why we sleep, it is still a vital function to our own well-being. Not only does it allow us to feel well-rested and ready to go, it has a number of other benefits including helping us to maintain lower stress-levels, sort out our thoughts and learnings, and even better-comprehend what we learned earlier that day.
It is well-known that people go through different stages of sleep. Upon falling asleep, a person will enter the “Alpha” stage, which is almost equivalent to a daydream-like state. Then for a few minutes we will enter the “Theta” stage, which happens right before we fall asleep. As we sleep, we cycle through different stages of lighter and heavier brain activity, all of which can be seen with an EEG (an electro-encephalograph) which measures your brain’s electrical activity. What interesting is that during one stage of deeper sleep, called REM sleep, our brain’s activity is extremely active. It is often during this REM stage that we dream (although research is being done which is finding that this may not be the only stage of sleep during which we dream). It is also during REM sleep that our bodies will be paralyzed so that we don’t act out our dreams.
Throughout the course of the night, your body and brain will cycle through different stages of sleep until your “cycling” is complete and you wake up [naturally]. Sometimes, when you don’t feel like you’ve had enough sleep, it may be because your brain didn’t finish the complete cycling of the stages (and note, the brain doesn’t cycle through these stages just once).
Although scientists are helping us to learn about what sleep is and its purpose, there is definitely still so much to be learned. In the meantime, let’s keep tuned to science’s progressive discoveries!
STEM Matters Manager: Marisa Ostos. *Source: “Stages of Sleep,” Psych Central.”
Guest Author: Ted Kraver, Ph. D.
Being an amateur reporter can be way too much fun! The Arizona Capital Times recently held their higher education panel including a free breakfast at Alexi’s. Their opening statements and comments to questions focused mostly on the future. Jim Small, Arizona News Service Editor kicked off the discussion.
Mark Brenner, Sr. VP, Apollo Education Group, opened with describing their global reach and how they were the first to go online and to use eText. Jeff Dial, Higher Education Chair in the Arizona House of Representatives, elaborated on their goal to have Arizona a leading state for citizens to live, work and raise families. Education is central to this goal and he studies its issues relentlessly. His priorities are Arizona supported research funding to support private sector partners and performance funding for community colleges and universities. Lisa Graham Keegan, Former Superintendent of Public Instruction and Education Reform Advocate, spoke of a culture that has used the tough years to focus on efficient means and expectations. We now have “Move On When Ready,” AP courses, many K-12 exemplar schools, programs and processes that are ready to enhance the effectiveness of all K-12 education. Mark Killian, Chair, Arizona Board of Regents, addressed our awesome public higher education system that is the only way to change the destiny of families in poverty. A mostly free education is in the constitution and state funding must be reestablished to meet the constitution’s requirement. We must turn back the tide of pricing higher education beyond the reach of most families. Arizona must also have informed and educated citizens and employers effective employees to succeed in the future. Brian Mueller, President/CEO Grand Canyon University, had been educating working adults that then left for out of state jobs. They have switched to on campus education with plans to grow from 25,000 to 50,000 students in four years. They focus on STEM and collaborate with local districts and Glendale Community College to graduate students in three years. He likes their green grass which facilitates mixing of high school and college students on campus.
The discussion continued the need for programs like the V12 in WWII where future officers achieved BS degrees in 2.5 years. Issues with credit transfer from private schools to public universities must also be solved. As K-12 improves, the costly remedial programs in colleges can be done away with. But Arizona companies are still unable to get enough STEM employees at all levels.
Is it the money? Real costs continue to increase but state support is less than in 1955. It was 1989 when Arizona last increased taxes. The concept of reducing school funding has not worked to improve education, our workforce, or the economy. Maybe it’s time to dump this failed concept and raise taxes and provide effective funding for schools.
A dedicated revenue source is needed, that does not need legislative approval each year. A proposal to “Just Raise Taxes” has, in the past, met with a mix of concerns from senior voters, businesses and legislators. But now “it may be time.” Wise long term financial planning and commitment is needed by state governance if Arizona is going thrive as the long term recession fades. A leading legislator from the audience had the last word. He said that a strategic plan is in the works but the details have not yet been disclosed.
HISTORY: Moving Map of
Probably the best capsule of the
history of our country ever put
together. It’s fascinating to watch
the evolution of growth from the 13
colonies up to the present, with
dates, wars, purchases, etc.
included. American history per this
short video clip.
Food for thought for fledgling STEM Enthusiasts
Editor: Macrina Cooper-White
“Look again at that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every “superstar,” every “supreme leader,” every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there-on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.
The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot.
Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.
The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand.
It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we’ve ever known.”
― Carl Sagan, Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space
Guest Art Contributor: John R. Drury, Drury Design Arts
You’ve probably heard that you weigh less on the moon, but do you understand why this is? It all has to do with something you may have seen before: F=ma is one of the most common equations found in a Physics classroom. F stands for “force,” m for “mass,” and a for “acceleration.”
Every object and person has a certain Mass (m), and this mass does not change regardless of where you are in the universe (Would your body shape and size suddenly change if you traveled to the moon? Of course not!). Acceleration (a) in this equation represents “gravity,” while Force (F) represents your own “weight” (Yes, your weight is a force). The equation F=ma shows that there is a direct relationship between your weight (F), your body-mass (m) and gravity (a). Because we’re exploring why you may weigh differently on a place like the moon, we can assume that your body-mass (m) remains constant and doesn’t change. What’s left to look at in the “F=ma” equation? Your weight (F) and gravity (a)!
With this, we can see that your weight (F) depends on the gravity (a) of an astronomical body such as the moon. If a celestial body’s gravity increases, so will your own weight! Since Jupiter is our solar system’s planet with the strongest gravity, you will weigh more on Jupiter than any other planet. Because the moon’s gravity is less than Earth’s gravity, you’ll weigh less on the moon than on Earth. Of course, you may have already known that gravity affects your weight, but now you have the tools to explain the math and physics behind it!
Source: Universe Today, STEM Matters Manager: Marisa Ostos