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Morenci smelter under construction, 1940

Arizona Rangers, shown here in Morenci, were ordered to the area in 1903 to resolve mining strikes. 

The New Italian Band of Morenci. In 1911 about seven hundred men were employed in mining in the camp, 74 percent of them Mexican and 10 percent Italian.

Home delivery by mule in early twentieth-century Morenci. Not until 1915, when a wagon road was at last graded into town, did automobiles serve local transportation needs.

A photograph of the Standard Mines Company community of Metcalf, near Morenci, clearly shows why deposits of copperin out-of-the way places required mining companies to become pioneer town builders

A mule hauls a string of ore cars at the top of the Shannon Incline close by turn-of-the-century Morenci.

Landscape of production: a maze of railway lines and trams links mines and processing works in the heart of old Morenci around 1912.

Railroad in Morenci, 1904

Burros transporting material, 1904

Railroad yard, 1904